Cinergie – Il Cinema e le altre Arti <strong>Cinergie – ISSN 2280-9481</strong> is an open-access, peer-reviewed, class-A journal. Its first on-line issue first appeared in 2012, but the journal has been published in hard copy since 1999. Cinergie is a wide-ranging film journal, that aims to publish original articles about national and international cinema, building a bridge to related fields. Dipartimento delle Arti - Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna en-US Cinergie – Il Cinema e le altre Arti 2280-9481 <p>The copyrights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (<a href="">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Realism and Aesthetic-Semiotic Theories Applied to Cinema with a Combination of Live-Action and Animation (1900-1988) <p>The article is an essay about the concept of fiction/reality applied to live-action cinema combined with animation. In particular, the article will deal with a diachronic (1900-1988) and aesthetic analysis. In fact, with the mixed technique (<em>The Enchanted Drawing</em>, directed by J. S. Blackton, 1900; <em>Gertie the Dinosaur</em>, directed by W. McCay, 1914; <em>Mary Poppins</em>, directed by R. Stevenson, 1964; <em>Pete's Dragon</em>, directed by D. Chaffey, 1977; <em>Who Framed Roger Rabbit</em>, directed by R. Zemeckis, 1988) it is possible to notice how the concept of border (first of all spatial) is confused between fiction and reality. In the essay are also analyzed some interesting semiotic and aesthetic theories, born mostly outside the world of cinema, of authors such as Hans Vaihinger (<em>fictionalism</em>), Alexius Meinong (<em>non-existent objects</em>), Kendall L. Walton (<em>make-believe</em>), Michel Foucault (<em>heterotopia</em>), applying them to the films examined.</p> Massimo Bonura Copyright (c) 2022 Massimo Bonura 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 137 147 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13611 The TV Series <em>Medici</em>: Showcasing Brand-Italy through an International Co-Production <p>This paper aims at exploring the tension between the global and local dimensions of Italian television products that circulate abroad through the analysis of a selection of production practices used in the Anglo-Italian tv series <em>Medici</em> (2016-2019). Grounding my work in a mixed methods approach which combines in-depth interviews conducted with key above-the-line professionals involved in the creative process of the series (producers, screenwriters, costume designers, cast directors, etc.) and an analysis of online official and grassroots discourses, this paper aims at investigating the strategies adopted by above-the-line creators in balancing the global and local dimensions of this series to appeal to both Italian and international audiences. Among these productive choices I will discuss casting strategies, the use of a crime plot to build the narrative, and the branding of Italy as the cradle of the Renaissances. My findings reveal that <em>Medici </em>showcases brand-Italy through a multiplicity of productive aspects from organizational practices to specific textual narrative choices, which allowed the series to have access to the global market.</p> Elisa Farinacci Copyright (c) 2022 Elisa Farinacci 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 149 162 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13279 The Discovery of the “Third World”: The Programming Policies of the Italian Antifestivals (1960-1976) <p>This paper explores the micro-histories, organization developments and programming policies of the Italian antifestivals between 1960 and 1976. It analyses how and why the antifestivals were created as a deliberate rupture with the conventional festival model, in the attempt to emancipate the appreciation of films from commercial and diplomatic interests, and to provide visibility to the then-emerging cinematic waves: Underground Films, Yugoslav Black Wave, and Third World Cinema. In particular, this exploration hinges on the ways these festivals heralded the discovery of Third-Worldist Latin American cinema as both an aesthetically innovative cinematic wave and a political act of intervention and solidarity.</p> Andrea Gelardi Copyright (c) 2022 Andrea Gelardi 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 163 177 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14490 The Rollercoaster of Fear: An Analysis Between Space and Time in the <em>Resident Evil</em> Saga <p><em>Resident Evil</em> represents an iconic saga in the video game medium. It marked the official birth of survival horror by establishing some formal aspects of the genre, as for the design of claustrophobic spaces and unsettling atmospheres. This essay will examine the main chapters of the <em>Resident Evil</em> saga, observing the different strategies employed to evoke fear into the player through the years. After an introduction based on the etymology of survival horror and the contextualisation of fear in digital games, the essay will advance a textual analysis focused on the relation between the spatial design and the potential temporality to explore the environments, which represent two standardised frameworks in the interdisciplinary field of game studies. Thus, the essay will underline three interconnected eras: the era of <em>segmentation</em> in the nineties; the era of <em>connection</em> between the zero and ten years; and the era of <em>restriction</em> in the last five years.</p> Matteo Genovesi Copyright (c) 2022 Matteo Genovesi 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 179 196 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14020 Distorsions of Authenticity: Grunge According to <em>MTV Unplugged</em> Between Performance, Resistance, and Memory <p>In the context of popular music studies, live performance represents a widely discussed theme which is enriched by further problematics when it deals with audiovisual media. The concept of liveness can be a relevant component of a community’s musical identity, such as in the case of the Seattle grunge scene. The live dimension is therefore a grunge audiovisual topic. An example full of implications is <em>MTV Unplugged</em>, which hosted the participation of three different Seattle bands between 1992 and 1996: Pearl Jam, Nirvana, and Alice in Chains. After Kurt Cobain’s and Layne Staley’s death, these performances have been wrapped around a mythical halo, as they have become fans’ main tool to elaborate their loss. By analyzing the audiovisual characteristics of the three televised concerts, the article wants to demonstrate how <em>MTV Unplugged </em>promoted the development of an elegiac interpretation of grunge. This affected not only the bands involved in these acoustic setlists, but the entire musical phenomenon too. Authenticity, for which liveness should act as a warrantor, collides with posthumous processes of memory, related to the inter-mundanity of the performance.</p> Francesco Rossetti Copyright (c) 2022 Francesco Rossetti 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 197 214 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13886 Fotografare la fotografia della realtà. Caterina Martino, <em>Look over look. Il cuore fotografico del cinema di Stanley Kubrick</em>, Mimesis, Milano – Udine 2021 Filippo Giuseppe Grimaldi Copyright (c) 2022 Filippo Giuseppe Grimaldi 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 215 217 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/15031 La morte corre sullo schermo. Giuseppe Previtali, <em>L’ultimo tabù. Filmare la morte fra spettacolarizzazione e politica dello sguardo</em>, Meltemi, Milano 2020 Mirko Lino Copyright (c) 2022 Mirko Lino 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 219 221 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/15029 An ‘Imagined Conversation’ with Italian Neorealism. Charles L. Leavitt IV, <em>Italian Neorealism. A Cultural History</em>, Toronto University Press, Toronto 2020 Sergio Rigoletto Copyright (c) 2022 Sergio Rigoletto 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 223 226 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/15032 Divi e quasi divi nella paleotelevisione italiana. Giulia Muggeo, <em>Star Domestiche. Le origini del divismo televisivo in Italia</em>, Kaplan, Torino 2021 Gianluigi Rossini Copyright (c) 2022 Gianluigi Rossini 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 227 229 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/15035 Riflessioni e rifrazioni della mascolinità. Angela Bianca Saponari, Federico Zecca (a cura di), <em>Oltre l’inetto. Rappresentazioni plurali della mascolinità nel cinema italiano</em>, Meltemi, Milano 2021 Chiara Tognolotti Copyright (c) 2022 Chiara Tognolotti 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 231 233 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/15034 La poetica dello spazio balneare. Christian Uva, <em>L’ultima spiaggia. Rive e derive del cinema italiano</em>, Marsilio, Venezia 2021 Martina Vita Copyright (c) 2022 Martina Vita 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 235 237 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/15033 Cronache familiari post-pandemiche. 72° edizione del Festival del Cinema di Berlino Cinzia Cattin Copyright (c) 2022 Cinzia Cattin 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 239 244 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/15030 Actors and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy <p>This special section of the issue was published with the support of the PRIN 2017 F-ACTOR: Forms of Contemporary Media Professional Acting. Training, Recruitment and Management, Social Discourse in Italy (2000–2020), financed by MUR. The issue focuses on the impact that the COVID-19 crisis had on the work of actors and actresses in Italy. In particular, three main themes are addressed in the essays that make up the special section: the development of a televisual style celebrity and process of aesthetic hybridization conveying messages of solidarity and togetherness; the role of actors and actresses in awareness raising; the willingness of performers to expose intimacy and ordinariness as a way to connect to the public.</p> Cristina Formenti Luca Antoniazzi Giulia Francesca Muggeo Copyright (c) 2022 Cristina Formenti, Luca Antoniazzi, Giulia Francesca Muggeo 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 1 6 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/15055 “Distant Yet United”: The Redefinition of Actors, Actresses and Celebrities in the Italian Pandemic Television Scenario <p>This paper investigates the television presence of Italian actors and actresses in the recent pandemic emergency. It draws on a wide range of published, online and video materials concerning both performers’ public discourse and television shows. Dealing with the relationship between actors and television, the article mainly focuses on three mutually influential processes that took place first in the lockdown and then in the months that followed. On one side, many peculiarities of television celebrity have characterized the public presence of actors and actresses of various artistic backgrounds. On another side, television space changed due to health and safety regulations, with studio audiences disappearing and then reappearing, making room for professionals and different forms of actorship. On yet another side, actors and actresses have redefined their relationship with the audience in public communication ads to raise awareness and provide information about the pandemic. At a time when domestic audiovisual consumption increases, not only does TV confirm its industrial and cultural role, but it also becomes a space of attraction for many celebrities and for other more marginal actors. The pandemic period is thus also a time of experimentation, in which multiple forms of actorship come into play on the small screen and partly redefine their characteristic features and the overall system of Italian celebrity.</p> Luca Antoniazzi Luca Barra Copyright (c) 2022 Luca Antoniazzi, Luca Barra 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 7 19 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14813 “What Am I Doing Here?” Film Festivals, Awards Shows, and Stars During the COVID-19 Emergency <p>Weaving together celebrity studies and film festival studies, the essay underscores how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the stars’ presence, mode of appearance, and employment within the rituals of film festivals and awards ceremonies. It also touches upon the way COVID-19 has impacted the relationship between film stars and their public within such events and how this relationship has been rethought also through the exploitation of Internet technologies. To this end, the essay benefits from interviews conducted with the artistic directors of the main Italian film festivals and awards ceremonies as well as with film stars that have attended such events under these unprecedented circumstances. More precisely, after providing a general outline of the changes that occurred within Italian film festivals and awards ceremonies during 2020 and how they have impacted the self-promotion of film stars, the essay focuses on two key events of the Italian awards and festival season: the David di Donatello awards ceremony and the Venice Film Festival.</p> Cristina Formenti Francesco Pitassio Sara Sampietro Copyright (c) 2022 Cristina Formenti, Francesco Pitassio, Sara Sampietro 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 21 33 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14491 Italian Teen Stars During the Pandemic: a Case Study of <em>SKAM Italia</em>'s Actors <p>Italian teen movies have rarely been recognized by critics as socially engaged because they are aimed at a teenage audience and are seen to favour sentimental plots (O’Rawe 2020). Nonetheless, products broadcast on online platforms (such as Amazon Prime and Netflix) are changing this by combining consumer media formulas with various socio-political themes. Above all, digitalization has made these issues more accessible and spread the image of teen stars to an ever-expanding audience on numerous social networks. However, what has happened since the beginning of the pandemic in Italy? The Italian celebrities involved in March 2020 in the <em>#IoRestoACasa</em> campaign contributed to raising public awareness of Covid-19 prevention (Vogue Italia 2020). This article will focus on the commitment of the young actors in SKAM Italia (2018-in production) through the <em>#IoRestoACasa</em> and <em>Su la Maschera</em> giù i contagi campaigns aimed at younger audiences. The article will examine the social media content of actors in the SKAM Italia series, arguing that the voices of young celebrities were important in normalizing the practice of “staying at home” and wearing a mask to mitigate the spread of the virus.</p> Maria Elena Alampi Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Elena Alampi 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 35 51 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14236 Into His Hands: Luca Argentero between Medical Drama, Personal Branding and Social Engagement <p>The Covid-19 crisis had a positive impact on the popularity and the bankability of Luca Argentero, leading actor of the successful RAI series <em>Doc-Nelle tue mani</em>. The role of Andrea Fanti, a doctor ready to do anything for the good of his patients, and the contemporary paternity – narrated on social media platforms – have allowed Argentero to rise to the status of an ideal male, expression of those values ​​- spirit of sacrifice, altruism and empathy - represented by doctors during periods of lockdown. The eight million viewers who followed <em>Doc-Nelle tue mani</em> testify how Argentero – celebrity with 2 million Instagram followers – manage to embody models of behavior and collective feelings. The goal of this article is to analyze social engagement activities of Luca Argentero during the Covid-19 crisis, in order to known whether this celebrity, through the character of Doc, contributed to raise public health awareness among his Instagram and Twitter followers.</p> Alberto Scandola Copyright (c) 2022 Alberto Scandola 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 53 62 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14092 Stand Up for Your Rights! Italian Celebrities and Actors' Struggles during the Pandemic <p>Italian actors are a weakly protected and chronically crumbled category: after decades of inertia the pandemic pushed to a cohesive mobilization of the performers, which stood and fought openly in defense of their rights. In the following months, many actors have revived the debate, mostly online, and through social media. They made calls and petitions, requesting economic aid and a regulatory framework to protect their rights. The most active organization is U.N.I.T.A. (Unione Nazionale Interpreti Teatro e Audiovisivo), an association founded during the most critical times of the pandemic, led by Vittoria Puccini and other well-known Italian actors. U.N.I.T.A.’s public statements primarily dealt with the problems related to the pandemic crisis to get, nowadays, to more complex (and rather old) issues related to the qualification and recognition of the actor’s professional role: rights of publicity in the new mediascape (for instance, streaming performances), the urgency of a guarantee fund, gender equality, the establishment of a professional register. In light of the above, the aim of the paper is firstly to reconstruct these actors’ collective stance-taking initiatives and the ways in which they were organized and promoted. Secondly, the contribution will analyze how this network activity has increased the professional recognition and relevance of the actor in the Italian media production field. Reflecting on the activity of networking, the analysis will consider how a traditionally fragmented category is now developing a consciousness of its role as a political intermediary and cultural endorser, also in the context of school education.</p> Giulia Francesca Muggeo Mariapaola Pierini Copyright (c) 2022 Giulia Francesca Muggeo, Mariapaola Pierini 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 63 72 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14664 Voices Without a Body: Celebrity at the Time of the Pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has appeared as a propelling force to creative movements for actors’ self-promotion, while at the same time causing an enforced desertion of the venues of their physical exposure. The range and degree of famous people body’s mediation was limited by the pandemic to the domestic sphere and to non-professional resources, which induced an unprecedented likeness of celebrities’ private lives to those of their spectators. Such leveling and the disappearance of public bodies have generated specific cultural meaning in Italy. They have reinforced the positioning of actors at the center of the nation's civic values. <em>Io sono... Italia</em> (2021) is a short inspirational film celebrating the national effort in the face of the emergency. Exploiting on the disembodied voice-over acting of an ensemble of actors and entertainers, it evokes a common condition: the disappearence of the body imposed by the pandemic. This essay investigates such issues through the analysis of the non-localized and mobile voice. It sets the voice-over of <em>Io sono... Italia</em> against the background of a variety of vocal uses in the contemporary media experience, especially those that induce greater intimacy with the viewer. It underscores how this product narrows acoustically the distance between the listener and the speaker and foregrounds a choral musicality, therefore reflecting the new proxemics of the quarantine and reverberating a fantasy of equality triggered by the pandemic.</p> Sara Pesce Copyright (c) 2022 Sara Pesce 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 73 84 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14455 Brand New Social Life: Forms and Practices of Self-Promotion of Italian Teen Celebrities during the Pandemic <p>The pre-pandemic period saw the emergence of a new Italian audiovisual phenomenon: an innovative cinema and new television series, aimed at a specific target audience - the teenagers belonging to Generation Z. Italian teen dramas have led to the advent of a star system full of young actors and actresses. Their young age has facilitated their landing on social platforms, particularly on Instagram, where, to varying degrees, they are active and enjoy a large number of followers, mainly teenagers and young adults. The advent of the pandemic has drastically impacted the professional and daily lives of both actors and their audience, making social platforms the main compensatory forms for the lost sociality - for teenagers and young adults - as well as an important alternative stage for young actors. In this context, the paper aims to investigate the forms of self-promotion of the actors and actresses of the Italian teen world. Specifically, the analysis is focused on Benedetta Porcaroli, Beatrice Bruschi, Ludovica Martino, Federico Cesari, Rocco Fasano and Lorenzo Zurzolo, since they are among the best-known teen celebrities with the most numerous following body on social media. The reference time range starts from the first wave of Covid-19 in Italy (March 2020 - June 2020) and goes until the end of the second wave (October 2020 - Janauary 2021) in order to identify and analyze any differences between the two pandemic moments, in terms of representation, social engagement and professional activities of the examined actors.</p> Ylenia Caputo Copyright (c) 2022 Ylenia Caputo 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 85 101 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14259 “I Studied Myself All Summer.” Bringing Fashion Home in Covid-19 Times: Alice Pagani as Fashion Icon <p>From the transnational success of <em>Baby</em> (Andrea De Sica, 2008-2012), popular media have described Alice Pagani, co-star of the television series, as the symbol of a new generation of Italian actresses. In just a few years, her charismatic image has been associated with major luxury brands such as Giorgio Armani. This essay analyzes the Instagram profile of celebrity, influencer and fashion icon Alice Pagani, in order to highlight how she managed to stage her latest incarnation as an "unfiltered" beauty, in the renewed pandemic framework. The essay will analyze the impact that the health emergency linked to Covid19 has had on the metamorphosis of its public image and authentication practices, from a gender point of view. In particular, the essay will closely examine her active participation in a new photographic genre that emerged from the pandemic, which was then widely copied: the home fashion editorial via FaceTime.</p> Silvia Vacirca Copyright (c) 2022 Silvia Vacirca 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 103 121 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14366 <em>Prove di libertà</em>: Portray Actors during Lockdown according to Riccardo Ghilardi’s Work <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has overwhelmed us in such a sudden and drastic way that it has rewritten our habits, including the experience of our domestic spaces. Starting from the role of the pandemic in redefinition of the interaction between public and private, internal and external spaces that founds the idea of ​​domesticity, we want to analyze Riccardo Ghilardi’s project <em>Prove di libertà</em>. This work collects shots taken by the Roman photographer during the lockdown of Spring 2020. The project draws a path that connects different portraits of cinema personalities with portraits of ordinary people, alternating them with photographs of empty streets and cinemas. The dialogue between the images tells the story of the cross-shared experience in which everyone, known or not, feels to be united by the same desire to return to freedom. In particular, the domestic space emerges as perfect scenario of this shared story, because the house had become at that moment, for everyone, the forced and unique space of the existential experience. The domestic space is also important because - with the pandemic - we acquired a habit which never was so pervasive before: going to other people’s home through images.</p> Chiara Borroni Copyright (c) 2022 Chiara Borroni 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 21 123 135 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14310