Cinergie – Il Cinema e le altre Arti <strong>Cinergie – ISSN 2280-9481</strong> is an open-access, peer-reviewed, class-A journal. Its first on-line issue first appeared in 2012, but the journal has been published in hard copy since 1999. Cinergie is a wide-ranging film journal, that aims to publish original articles about national and international cinema, building a bridge to related fields. Dipartimento delle Arti - Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna en-US Cinergie – Il Cinema e le altre Arti 2280-9481 <p>The copyrights of all the texts on this journal belong to the respective authors without restrictions.</p><div><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></div><p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> (<a href="">full legal code</a>). <br /> See also our <a href="/about/editorialPolicies#openAccessPolicy">Open Access Policy</a>.</p> Prime influenze cinematografiche tra Stati Uniti e Italia. Federico Di Chio, <em> Il cinema americano in Italia. Industria, società, immaginari dalle origini alla Seconda Guerra Mondiale </em>, Vita e Pensiero, Milano 2021 Massimo Bonura Copyright (c) 2021 Massimo Bonura 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 177 178 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13997 La voce dei dispositivi. Ruggero Eugeni, <em>Capitale algoritmico. Cinque dispositivi postmediali (più uno)</em>, Scholé Morcelliana, Brescia 2021 Lorenzo Denicolai Copyright (c) 2021 Lorenzo Denicolai 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 179 181 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13999 Dal controllo alla caduta. Tomaso Subini, <em>La via italiana alla pornografia. Cattolicesimo, sessualità e cinema (1948-1986)</em>, Le Monnier, Firenze 2021 Gabriele Landrini Copyright (c) 2021 Gabriele Landrini 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 183 185 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14001 Mappare la mascolinità. Gabriele Rigola, <em>Homo Eroticus. Cinema, identità maschile e società italiana nella rivista Playmen</em>, Rubbettino, Soveria Mannelli (CZ) 2021 Sofia Torre Copyright (c) 2021 Sofia Torre 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 187 189 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14002 Maschere su maschere. La Realtà Virtuale alla 78a Mostra del cinema di Venezia Alberto Brodesco Copyright (c) 2021 Alberto Brodesco 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 191 192 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13998 Sicilia Queer 2021 International New Visions FilmFest, 11 edizione Marco Grifò Copyright (c) 2021 Marco Grifò 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 193 195 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/14000 Saturday Night Candidates: Comedic Brands on <em>Saturday Night Live</em> During the 2016 Presidential Election <p>NBC’s <em>Saturday Night Live</em> (SNL, 1975-) is an institution for political humor on the American television. The key for many successful impersonations seems to be hiring popular comedians who build heavily on their own identity and stardom, exploiting the bodies of politicians to define and promote their own comedic persona in the public arena. This is especially true for the seasons that led to the 2016 presidential election, as shown by the strategies enacted by impersonators like Kate McKinnon, Alec Baldwin and Larry David, who respectively played the role of Hillary Clinton, Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders. This essay will take into account the aforementioned caricatures from the 2016 electoral cycle, highlighting the pivotal roles of intertextuality and reflexivity for SNL’s political impersonators. Therefore, sketches and interviews will be considered, especially those that shape the comedians public image and explore their relationship with the candidates and the program’s production cultures and practices.</p> Matteo Marinello Copyright (c) 2021 Matteo Marinello 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 139 151 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13363 The Throbbing Eye: Monica Vitti's Writings on Art <p>This article analyzes Monica Vitti’s writing production related to art. By drawing from different sources from the mid-1990s – an art column held on the magazine «Cahiers d’Art» (<em>L’occhio innocente</em> [<em>The innocent eye</em>] and her autobiographical texts (<em>Il letto è una rosa</em> [<em>The bed is a rose</em>] and <em>Sette Sottane</em> [<em>Seven skirts</em>]) – and intertwining them with archival documents and texts from Art History and Film Studies, this investigation aims at demonstrating how the artistic dimension is rooted for Vitti in the entanglement between vision, emotions and the forms of thought. The actress explores in her writing the possibilities of a haptic gaze able to activate a metamorphosis of reality. Her words open a dialogue with the cinematograhic medium and particularly with the experience shared with Michelangelo Antonioni, but they also resonate with a genealogy of women’s writings focused on sensory phenomenology as a manifestation of an emotional intelligence.</p> Giulia Simi Copyright (c) 2021 Giulia Simi 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 153 166 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13176 Orson Welles and the Directors Company: a Maestro inside the New Hollywood <p>While he was busy making <em>The Other Side of the Wind</em>, Orson Welles was working on finding new financial supporters that would grant him both money and real productive and creative autonomy. Among the interlocutors identified by Welles during the 1970s, the research ignored the interest shown by The Directors Company, a New Hollywood production company, little known to the general public due to its very short life cycle, but which, at the at the same time, was able to create some of the most original films of the period, such as <em>Paper Moon</em> &nbsp;(1973) by Peter Bogdanovich or <em>The Conversation</em> (1974) by Francis Ford Coppola. Thanks to the rediscovery of the Welles archive inside Museo Nazionale del Cinema in Turin, it is now possible to consult a series of documents capable to show the relationship between the director of <em>Citizen Kane</em> (1941) and one of the most original companies of the New Hollywood. It is a completely new series of letters, written after an unknown screening of <em>F for Fake</em>, which demonstrate, through the highly original perspective of Orson Welles, how close was the possibility that New Hollywood could produce <em>The Other Side of the Wind</em>. Some unpublished letters from the Welles fund of the National Cinema Museum in Turin highlight the relationship between Welles and the Directors Company, in relation to the troubled production of <em>The Other Side of the Wind</em>.</p> Massimiliano Studer Copyright (c) 2021 Massimiliano Studer 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 167 175 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13661 Introduction: Film Heritage and Digital Scholarship - Computer-Based Approaches to Film Archiving, Restoration and Philology Rossella Catanese Adelheid Heftberger ‪Christian Gosvig Olesen Copyright (c) 2021 Rossella Catanese, ‪Christian Gosvig Olesen, Adelheid Heftberger 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 1 6 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13948 Comparative Analysis of Colour Film Style by Computational Means <p>This paper uses two different colour versions of the early film <em>The </em><em>Life and Passion of Christ</em> (<em>La Vie et la Passion de Jésus Christ</em>, 1907) by Ferdinand Zeccato demonstrate how computer-based techniques for analysing digitized film materials, using a combination of close and distant readings, can facilitate the ‘text’-critical, comparative analysis of colour film styles as practised in the fields of both film studies and film archives, a process that ultimately benefits their different research and knowledge interests. The case study illustrates the use of the annotation and visualization software VIAN, as well as the VIAN WebApp, by focusing mainly on its automatic colour analysis tools and its computationally produced colour film visualizations, which function as epistemic images. VIAN thereby becomes the scientific framework that provides the examiner with an objective, evidence-generating system for comparing colour films. The strategy of using contemporary digital humanities tools in these fields thus makes the invisible visible and the impossible possible.</p> Olivia Kristina Stutz Copyright (c) 2021 Olivia Kristina Stutz 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 7 25 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13062 The Digital Witness: Film Reconstruction and the Forensic Imagination in New Media Environments <p>Early on 2020, University of Udine signed a collaboration with Instituto LUCE, aimed to a digital restoration of a supposedly lost expedition film: <em>Spedizione Franchetti nella Dancalia</em> (Mario Craveri, 1929, b/w, silent). LUCE and University of Udine brought to light a large amount of film materials that included 35mm original negatives, DupPos Lavanders, Positives, and a 9.5mm reduction print but no trace of an edited version of the 35mm film. The pandemic forced the project to shift remote and forbid working on the original film materials. Therefore, an inspection of edge-to-edge digital scanned copies of every element was planned: a “digital fac-simile” (Gschwind 2002) through continuous scanning.&nbsp;Planning the philo-genetics of each digital element,&nbsp;on one hand we assume that digital environments support and sustain an “ideal allographic environment” (Goodman 1976), as to say “a premeditated material environment built and engineered to propagate an illusion of immateriality” (Kirschenbaum 2008) – a premise that legitimate a philological authentication of digital copy of analog films. On the other hand, digital technology tends to and “must produce perfect outputs from imperfect inputs, nipping small errors in the bud (Kirschenbaum 2008). Given this premise and the pivotal role that errors and innovations play in the stage of <em>recensio&nbsp;</em>and <em>collatio, </em>this proposal intends to reframe the “digital witness” by stressing the materiality of film (in digital film preservation) as an ongoing interpretation, where digital philology is <em>always</em> digital hermeneutics.</p> Serena Bellotti Andrea Mariani Copyright (c) 2021 Serena Bellotti, Andrea Mariani 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 27 43 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13268 From Edge to Edge: The Restoration of <em>La battaglia dall’Astico al Piave</em> (1918) and the Search for a Digital Historical-Critical Infrastructure <p>The restoration of <em>La battaglia dall’Astico al Piave</em> (Italy, 1918) has been funded by MiC (the Italian Ministry of Culture) and carried out by the University of Udine in collaboration with several film archives. Starting from a historical-philological and restoration framework, the case study offers some reflections and considerations between the fields of the digital humanities, film preservation, and cinema history. Furthermore, it provides a concrete opportunity to achieve the two goals of raising awareness about the status of digitized film artefacts, framing them as the result of modelling practices, and documenting the film preservation process as well as the surrounding historical and cultural network in a digital historical-critical infrastructure.</p> Simone Venturini Copyright (c) 2021 Simone Venturini 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 45 68 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13539 FiRe2: a Call for a Film Repository of Technical Data and Memories for Photo and Movie Restoration <p>Throughout history, thousands of different kinds of film formats, emulsions and colour systems have been used, to reproduce natural colours and as mean of expression for specific characters and scenes. In recent years, the advent of digital mediums has improved post-production technology and the film restoration process. Moreover, the support migration exposed different issues, such as colour reproducibility in digital systems that present the same problems as those posed by analogue. Furthermore, the lack of physical information on film dyes, emulsions and sensitivity renders the reconstruction of different film process colours impossible, and so too their comparison with the analogue or digital copies. In this contribution we aim to increase film experts’ and restorers’ awareness of colour reproduction problems that always affect the practice of digitization and digital restoration, and we propose the contribution of Fire<sup>2</sup>, an open access database of cinematographic and photographic technical data and materials, to support the work of conservators, restorers, and researchers.</p> Alice Plutino Arianna Crespi Giulia Morabito Beatrice Sarti Alessandro Rizzi Copyright (c) 2021 Alice Plutino, Arianna Crespi, Giulia Morabito, Beatrice Sarti, Alessandro Rizzi 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 69 83 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13106 Website for Cesare Zavattini’s Works: Digitizing and Dynamizing a Personal Audiovisual Archive <p>Digitization has been changing the methods of production, distribution and use of written and audiovisual products, according to a process of “platformization” (Van Dijck, Poell, de Waal 2018). Following the “network society” model (Castells 1996), platforms, as creative ecosystems (Montanari 2018) and medial ecosystems (Pescatore, Innocenti 2011), have introduced a new mindset that connects producers and consumers within a digital environment, breaking down space-time barriers, controlling data and simplifying the supply chain (Nasta and Pirolo, 2017). So even the audiovisual field has undergone a transition to companies with a service provider role, following a user-based model that feeds different forms of participation and spreadability through intermediality and storytelling (Abercrombie and Longhurst, 1998; Jenkins, Ford, Green 2013).The project of digitization of written material of the Zavattini Archive (Biblioteca Panizzi, Reggio Emilia) starts from a productive theoretical (and methodological) intersection between platform design and game design. As we will see, the paradigm shift that platform design has brought resembles certain characteristics of the “play” experience. The concepts of collaboration and intermediation lead to a rethinking of users as pivotal and at the centre, not only regarding their user experience (as in certain types of digital games) but also in the production of various types of content (as in platforms), leading to asynchronous collective experiences, whether they are related to gaming or to participating in platforms.</p> Nicola Maria Dusi Antonella Capalbi Maria Doina Mareggini Mauro Salvador Copyright (c) 2021 Nicola Dusi, Mauro Salvador, Antonella Capalbi, Maria Doina Mareggini 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 85 95 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13059 Watching Historical Films Through AI: Reflections on Image Retrieval from Heritage Collections <p>Computer tools allow us to watch films differently and offer film scholars the opportunity to ask diverse research questions and imagine innovative methods. This article focuses, more precisely, on how film historians could benefit from Artificial Intelligence (AI), a tool which has not been used much in the field. The objective is to share a first round of experiments using Snoop, an AI developed by a collaboration between the French National Audiovisual Institute (INA) and the National Institute for Research in Digital Science and Technology (INRIA), on a corpus of historical films that, because they have been aired on television, are available for research from the INA collections. Following an exploratory approach, Snoop allowed us to retrieve shared motifs in a corpus of historical films. In addition to discussing challenges and findings, this article aims to evaluate the overall experience and open new lines of inquiry. From a historiographical point of view, we aim to assess whether, and if so, how, AI systems are useful tools for the implementation of different methods that both answer new research questions and revisit old ones.</p> <p> </p> Beatriz Tadeo Fuica Olivier Buisson Claude Mussou Copyright (c) 2021 Beatriz Tadeo Fuica, Olivier Buisson, Claude Mussou 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 97 112 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13082 Digital Picklock for Video Art Exgesis: Reflections, Conditions and Possible Employment of Distant Viewing to Moving Image Datasets in Visual Arts Scholarship <p>With the advent of digital humanities new expectations and challenges are emerging for institutions harbouring video artworks, specifically in offering access and analytical tools to their archival collections. The paper argues for the possible employment of distant viewing to allow visual arts scholars an unprecedented take on video art, holding together both quantitative comparison and aesthetic considerations. In doing so, the paper addresses the peculiar conditions of video art that need proper consideration for a fruitful employment of distant viewing. Set on the background of the existing platforms for video-art consumption –such as UBU Network, JSC Media Centre, and Daata Streaming Platform that constitute true forerunners in this domain– the paper explores productive connections, synergies and frictions that might emerge with methods in digital humanities. In doing so, this research aims at setting early theoretical assumptions necessary to draw a methodological approach in the employment of distant viewing to video art. Accordingly, the paper reflects on the effectiveness of using thematic sub-sets based on categories already defined by visual arts, as well as on the possible implications of widespread practices such as manipulation and appropriation of video material.</p> Diego Mantoan Copyright (c) 2021 Diego Mantoan 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 113 123 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13210 Indeterminable Frames: Exploring Digital Humanities Approaches and Applications for the Moving Image <p>This project continues ongoing conversations about recontextualizing and expanding our understanding of how we engage with film using avant-garde and experimental works originating as celluloid media as case studies. Digitization of celluloid media provides greater points of access to works on analog formats yet should not be considered a means to an end as there is more to explore within this relationship. Using the computational tools FFmpeg, Image Macroanalysis in JavaScript, and ImagePlot for ImageJ, we can approach a different visual understanding of cinema that allows us to challenge the traditional concept of time and its relation to film. Can we encounter new meanings from moving image works when we view the frames concurrently? How do digital humanities applications contribute to an alternative method of engagement with moving images? Are the resulting revisualizations an alternative form of film analysis, and thus, a form of cinematic consciousness? Key frameworks for analysis include critical approaches to digitality, the history of the moving image, re-investigating the terms in which commentary is drawn and undertaken, data as capta, and revisualizations as a continuation of aura within a domain of tradition.</p> Patricia Ledesma Villon Copyright (c) 2021 Patricia Ledesma Villon 2021-12-20 2021-12-20 20 125 138 10.6092/issn.2280-9481/13055